The Miscreants behind the Salem Witch Trials

The Rebecca Nurse House, home of one of the accused

Today is the first day of autumn. There is evidently something about human nature that causes us to contemplate the shadowy and possibly even supernatural side of things as the weather gets colder and the days get shorter. Halloween falls during this time for a reason.  It’s a beautiful time of year and my favorite season. But there’s a darker side to it as well, especially if you look at it from a historical perspective. People associated this season with grim and spooky things and there was much to for a New England settler to fear during those lengthening autumn nights.

Fall always makes me think of Salem. And clearly, judging by the throngs of people who pack into the town as Halloween approaches, I’m not the only one. It is a little odd, given that the Salem witch hysteria started in the late winter and continued for more than a year, that we should associate it most with October. But the reasons for that are self-evident, I suppose.

I am fascinated by the Salem Witch Trial story. It’s a perfect example of how truth is stranger than fiction. You couldn’t invent a more tragic, convoluted, or dramatic tale if you tried. And it seems there’s always more to learn about it…new stories about different people who were affected. I try to make it to Salem and Danvers every October to re-visit the sites associated with the episode. And every time I see them, it just gives me chills.

Historians have tied themselves in knots trying to figure this one out. My fascination with this episode has partly to do with the complex history but also with the new and sometimes outlandish explanations that people come up with to explain the events. The one that takes the cake, in my opinion, is the theory advanced by behavioral scientist Linnda Caporael who argues that the people of Salem Village suffered from ergot poisoning, the results of a fungus in rye bread that produces hallucinations similar to LSD. Seriously? How complicated can you possibly make this? Apply Occam’s Razor here, for God’s sake. This was personal and that’s all there is to it.

I have a theory about history. It is driven mainly by personal politics. When people do things, they are rarely thinking about the bigger picture. We generally do what is best for ourselves, our families and friends. For reasons that are quite personal, we cooperate with the people we like, and we work against the people we don’t like. Our personal actions can have a ripple effect in some cases that literally affects history. I published a paper on how this sort of thing drove the history of the antislavery movement prior to the Civil War. But that’s a different story.

When it comes to the Witch Trials, there are plenty of competing theories out there, but I think there is a general consensus, and I strongly believe, that this all started as personal politics. A Hatfields and McCoys sort of thing. And it is such a sad, sad shame.

The Putnam family and the Porter family had been at odds throughout the 1670s and 80s in Salem Village (now Danvers, Massachusetts). The Putnams were farmers, conservative, and disliked change. The Porters an up and coming family, branching into maritime trade in adjacent Salem Town. They had a slightly more worldly view and were a bit more liberal in politics and religion.

The two families had locked horns over land disputes, but things became even hotter when it came time for Salem Village to pick a new minister in 1689. The Putnams and their camp wanted Rev. Samuel Parris, a conservative minister who did not tolerate unorthodox views on religion. They got their wish, but in 1691, just months before the hysteria burst, the Porter camp managed to take control of local affairs and took steps to cut Parris’s salary.

Now we come to February 1692 and nine year-old Betty Parris (the minister’s daughter) playing games with her friend Abigail Williams. The girls fancied that they could foretell who their husbands would be by dropping an egg into a glass of water and interpreting its shape…a trick they may or may not have been taught by Parris’s slave Tituba. The minister caught them in the act, Betty went catatonic, and the local physician proclaimed that they had been bewitched.

Soon some of Betty’s friends started throwing fits and claiming that they, too, were bewitched. One of the most convincing at this game was 12 year-old Ann Putnam, Jr., daughter of Thomas and Ann Putnam. Before long, the hysterical girls were singling out people in Salem Village as witches. These people included Rebecca Nurse (the Putnams had been embroiled in a bitter land dispute with her family), the previous minister Rev. George Burroughs (the Putnams had had him imprisoned back in 1683 because he owed their family money) and three of those who voted against collecting the revenue for Parris’s salary–Philip English, Daniel Andrew and Francis Nurse.

Shrieking accusations from hysterical children weren’t enough to begin investigations, however. Written complaints had to be registered with the magistrates for the accused to be questioned and/or imprisoned. The majority of these, at least in Salem Village before the hysteria spread, were signed by brothers Thomas and John Putnam.

What a convenient way for Parris and the Putnams to take out their enemies. One can only imagine how they might have coached the girls to do what they did. It’s a terribly sad thing. Their rivals, the Porter camp, tried to put a stop to the hysteria. As a result, many of them were singled out as witches. It snow-balled from there, and became much bigger than the Putnams. But it certainly started with them.

Rev. Parris House foundation

It’s been a few years since I’ve managed to get to Salem and Danvers. I want to get there this year. Last time I was in Danvers, I was with a group of friends and we managed to find a site that had eluded me on prior trips as it’s hidden well off the road…Rev. Parris’s house…or what’s left of it. There’s just a foundation now.

There’s so much mythology around the Salem Witch Trials that at times the whole thing can seem like fiction. When sitting by this foundation, I found it very hard to get my head around the notion that Betty Parris was a real girl and Rev. Parris a real man who caught his daughter practicing “magic” on the very location where I was sitting. That one spot, a very tangible place, was the ground zero of the Salem witch hysteria.

It can be breathtaking to stand on a spot where an event of such monumental importance took place. In this case, breathtaking and unsettling. But…I’ll certainly go back.

Footnote: Most of the above information comes from an excellent and succinct history of the trials, Hunting for Witches, by Frances Hill (Commonwealth Editions, 2002). Also serves as a great guidebook to the historical sites.

About Patrick Browne

I am a PhD candidate in History, former historical society and museum director of roughly 20 years, an author, sometimes Civil War reenactor. I specialize in early American History, particularly the Civil War era. View all posts by Patrick Browne

11 responses to “The Miscreants behind the Salem Witch Trials

  • Jeff Lawrence

    Very cool post. While my fascination with the Salem hysteria & trials have not run as deep as yours, I have long held an interest, and have made a number of pilgrimages (heh) out there myself. I’ll most definitely be checking out Hill’s Hunting now. Have you perchance read The Devil in the Shape of a Woman by Carol Karlsen? While not limited to Salem, I found it to be a great read on the socioeconomic and gender-attributable aspects of many of the New England trials.

    • Historicist

      Yes, I think I read that back in grad school days. Isn’t that the one that focuses on the generational conflict? The girls singled out older women out of rebellion and all that?
      Hill actually has a couple books on the subject, both very good.

  • Alan

    Nice post, I enjoyed your perspective on the history. It is a very chilling story. I had a wonderful experience in Salem a few years ago. I was performing a piece based on one of trials in the Witch House museum. After the first performance I noticed a warrant framed on the wall which included the name of the man I was portraying and the the warrant was dated on the same date we were performing 311 years earlier.

    • Historicist

      That is VERY cool. Coincidences like that can just stop you in your tracks. I can’t help but think that things like that mean something…And how cool to perform in the Witch House! Most interesting building in Salem Town.

  • The Haunting of the Capt. Phillips House in Plymouth | Historical Digression

    […] The whole episode, from my perspective, has echoes of the Salem Witch Trials. Individuals motivated by financial and/or political issues alleging supernatural phenomena in order to win the upper hand. But you can read about that in an older entry. […]

  • Cotton Boll Conspiracy

    I know you wrote this several years ago, but it’s an excellent read.

    And these lines really resonated with me: “Apply Occam’s Razor here, for God’s sake. This was personal and that’s all there is to it.

    “I have a theory about history. It is driven mainly by personal politics. When people do things, they are rarely thinking about the bigger picture. We generally do what is best for ourselves, our families and friends. For reasons that are quite personal, we cooperate with the people we like, and we work against the people we don’t like. Our personal actions can have a ripple effect in some cases that literally affects history.”

    Indeed, the saying that all politics is local could probably be adapted to something akin to “All history is personal,” or at least begins at a personal level.

    If you’ve ever incorporated your paper on how personal preference was linked to the history of the antislavery movement into a blog post, or the paper itself is available online, I’d like to read it.

    • Patrick Browne

      Hi, Kevin. Thanks for the good feedback. Funny you should put it that way about adapting Tip O’Neill’s “all politics is local” to “all history is personal.” I’ve said that very thing in many, many lectures. I don’t think I’ve ever blogged about the personal politics of antislavery…not sure why not, come to think of it. The paper is available on JSTOR, here.

  • Bob Albert

    Patrick,

    I enjoyed your article, but wonder if the Porter vs. Putnam idea oversimplifies the underpinnings of the events. I am descended from Putnams (both accusers and defenders,) Porters, Proctors, Nurses, Popes, Hathornes, Dodges, and various other participants in the hysteria. It seems to me that the inter-family rivalries extended well beyond those two.

    Bob Albert

    • Patrick Browne

      Thanks for the comment, Bob. To be sure, there were plenty of rivalries to go around and once the panic started to spread, it all got very complicated very quickly. But I think if you examine the roots of the thing, the very earliest origins, it did have a great deal to do with the Putnams/Porters. This whole theory was best advanced, I think, by Frances Hill in her succinct volume, “Hunting for Witches.” She has also written other books on the topic.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: