Today is the first day of autumn. There is evidently something about human nature that causes us to contemplate the shadowy and possibly even supernatural side of things as the weather gets colder and the days get shorter. Halloween falls during this time for a reason. It’s a beautiful time of year and my favorite season. But there’s a darker side to it as well, especially if you look at it from a historical perspective. People associated this season with grim and spooky things and there was much to for a New England settler to fear during those lengthening autumn nights.
Fall always makes me think of Salem. And clearly, judging by the throngs of people who pack into the town as Halloween approaches, I’m not the only one. It is a little odd, given that the Salem witch hysteria started in the late winter and continued for more than a year, that we should associate it most with October. But the reasons for that are self-evident, I suppose.
I am fascinated by the Salem Witch Trial story. It’s a perfect example of how truth is stranger than fiction. You couldn’t invent a more tragic, convoluted, or dramatic tale if you tried. And it seems there’s always more to learn about it…new stories about different people who were affected. I try to make it to Salem and Danvers every October to re-visit the sites associated with the episode. And every time I see them, it just gives me chills.
Historians have tied themselves in knots trying to figure this one out. My fascination with this episode has partly to do with the complex history but also with the new and sometimes outlandish explanations that people come up with to explain the events. The one that takes the cake, in my opinion, is the theory advanced by behavioral scientist Linnda Caporael who argues that the people of Salem Village suffered from ergot poisoning, the results of a fungus in rye bread that produces hallucinations similar to LSD. Seriously? How complicated can you possibly make this? Apply Occam’s Razor here, for God’s sake. This was personal and that’s all there is to it.
I have a theory about history. It is driven mainly by personal politics. When people do things, they are rarely thinking about the bigger picture. We generally do what is best for ourselves, our families and friends. For reasons that are quite personal, we cooperate with the people we like, and we work against the people we don’t like. Our personal actions can have a ripple effect in some cases that literally affects history. I published a paper on how this sort of thing drove the history of the antislavery movement prior to the Civil War. But that’s a different story.
When it comes to the Witch Trials, there are plenty of competing theories out there, but I think there is a general consensus, and I strongly believe, that this all started as personal politics. A Hatfields and McCoys sort of thing. And it is such a sad, sad shame.
The Putnam family and the Porter family had been at odds throughout the 1670s and 80s in Salem Village (now Danvers, Massachusetts). The Putnams were farmers, conservative, and disliked change. The Porters an up and coming family, branching into maritime trade in adjacent Salem Town. They had a slightly more worldly view and were a bit more liberal in politics and religion.
The two families had locked horns over land disputes, but things became even hotter when it came time for Salem Village to pick a new minister in 1689. The Putnams and their camp wanted Rev. Samuel Parris, a conservative minister who did not tolerate unorthodox views on religion. They got their wish, but in 1691, just months before the hysteria burst, the Porter camp managed to take control of local affairs and took steps to cut Parris’s salary.
Now we come to February 1692 and nine year-old Betty Parris (the minister’s daughter) playing games with her friend Abigail Williams. The girls fancied that they could foretell who their husbands would be by dropping an egg into a glass of water and interpreting its shape…a trick they may or may not have been taught by Parris’s slave Tituba. The minister caught them in the act, Betty went catatonic, and the local physician proclaimed that they had been bewitched.
Soon some of Betty’s friends started throwing fits and claiming that they, too, were bewitched. One of the most convincing at this game was 12 year-old Ann Putnam, Jr., daughter of Thomas and Ann Putnam. Before long, the hysterical girls were singling out people in Salem Village as witches. These people included Rebecca Nurse (the Putnams had been embroiled in a bitter land dispute with her family), the previous minister Rev. George Burroughs (the Putnams had had him imprisoned back in 1683 because he owed their family money) and three of those who voted against collecting the revenue for Parris’s salary–Philip English, Daniel Andrew and Francis Nurse.
Shrieking accusations from hysterical children weren’t enough to begin investigations, however. Written complaints had to be registered with the magistrates for the accused to be questioned and/or imprisoned. The majority of these, at least in Salem Village before the hysteria spread, were signed by brothers Thomas and John Putnam.
What a convenient way for Parris and the Putnams to take out their enemies. One can only imagine how they might have coached the girls to do what they did. It’s a terribly sad thing. Their rivals, the Porter camp, tried to put a stop to the hysteria. As a result, many of them were singled out as witches. It snow-balled from there, and became much bigger than the Putnams. But it certainly started with them.
It’s been a few years since I’ve managed to get to Salem and Danvers. I want to get there this year. Last time I was in Danvers, I was with a group of friends and we managed to find a site that had eluded me on prior trips as it’s hidden well off the road…Rev. Parris’s house…or what’s left of it. There’s just a foundation now.
There’s so much mythology around the Salem Witch Trials that at times the whole thing can seem like fiction. When sitting by this foundation, I found it very hard to get my head around the notion that Betty Parris was a real girl and Rev. Parris a real man who caught his daughter practicing “magic” on the very location where I was sitting. That one spot, a very tangible place, was the ground zero of the Salem witch hysteria.
It can be breathtaking to stand on a spot where an event of such monumental importance took place. In this case, breathtaking and unsettling. But…I’ll certainly go back.
Footnote: Most of the above information comes from an excellent and succinct history of the trials, Hunting for Witches, by Frances Hill (Commonwealth Editions, 2002). Also serves as a great guidebook to the historical sites.